makeSEA Analysis - Magnetic PLA - Electromagnetic Tests

Magnetic PLA -Electromagnetic Tests

Magnetic PLA from Proto Pasta must be useful as core of an electromagnet. Without knowing its physical properties, I just built a brushless motor using this material, and it worked! But there is still the question: How much does it really help?

In order to find the final answer, I should assemble two identical motors, where only the material of the core is different. But winding an entire stator is a lot of work, so I’ve done more basic tests first.

Simple Coil

I’ve designed a core for a simple coil, and 3d-printed it with PETG and magnetic PLA from Proto Pasta. These are the common properties:

Coil Length




Coil Diameter inside




Coil Diameter outside







(2 layers, 20 turns each)

Wire Diameter



(0.5 mm with isolation)

Wire Area




Wire Length



(incl. 80mm long connection wire)

Resistivity Copper




Resistance (measured)




Resistance (calculated)




If the coils are used as inductor in an electrical circuit, it has the following measured values.



Magnetic PLA






The inductivity of the coil with the magnetic PLA is 28% higher.

That’s not telling a lot about the brushless motor. For the motor the torque, resp. The magnetic forces are interesting. So I’ve created a setup, using a scale, a wooden bar (lever), and a constant current power supply.


A permanent magnet (30x10x3 mm) is fixed on the lever above the coil (electromagnet). The electromagnet is firmly fixed on the ground (large bar). If the electromagnet is powered, the permanent magnet is attracted (or repelled). ⅓ of the force is applied directly on the ground, ⅔ are applied to the scale (approximately - the law of the lever). The setup allows to replace the electromagnet, and hence compare them. The absolute values of the forces are not interesting, because finally only the ratio between the different materials is interesting.

In a first experiment the distance of the magnet was kept constant (at roughly 1.5 mm), and the current was changed from -3A to +3A.

The measured values are on a straight line. This is not really surprising as it is basic physics:

More interesting the differences: The force created by an electromagnet with magnetic PLA as a core is 34% higher compared to an electromagnet without ferromagnetic core (air).

For the next experiment I’ve kept the current constant at 3A, and changed the distance of the magnet by adding sheets of cardboard between lever and scale.


The ratio of magnetic PLA and PETG changes depending on the distance. The the increase of forces ranges from 30% to 43% for the measured distances. Probably the minimum increase goes to 0% for larger distances.

The range is quite large - I didn’t expect such a variation. Probably the “cap” of the spool as an influence to these measurements. The PLA-spool has the advantage, that the “magnetic distance” between the copper wire and the permanent magnet is shorter. This kind of comparison would be more “fair” if there was no cap (core ends right at the last turn of the coil). Anyway, this simple setup demonstrates, that the reality isn’t really simple to pack into formulas.

Generator / Kv

What is the effect of magnetic PLA from Proto Pasta, when it’s used as stator of a Generator (resp. brushless motor)? How big is the induced voltage?

The question did arise, when I started the design of a generator, which should produce a relative high voltage already at low RPM. For this reason an efficient stator is needed for the copper wires, and it needs to have many turns per tooth. In order to find an answer, I’ve printed the same stator from the brushless motor model A001.1 with PETG and magnetic PLA. Because I wanted to have a quick answer, not all coils were wound, but only one coil of one phase.


In the images above a rotor with 2x2mm magnets was use. Magnets are a bit stronger than the 3 mm magnets from earlier experiments. For the current experiment it doesn’t make a difference, because the same rotor was used for both types of stator. For both stators the same copper wire and number of turns was used.



Wire Diameter



Turns per Coil



Wire Length per Coil



These are the measurements with the manual drilling machine and the scope on my laptop. On the left the PETG core, on the right the magnetic PLA core:


As expected, the generated voltage with the magnetic PLA core is higher. The frequency is also a bit different, so let’s compare the proper Kv of the two configurations. A fully wound stator had 6 coils per phase, and 3 phases. Phases are connected in star configuration.



magnetic PLA


Amplitude single Coil (measured)




Rotation Speed (measured)




Kv (calculated)




Compared with a non-magnetic material (in our case PETG), magnetic PLA used as a stator core the generated voltage is 15% higher.


The expected Kv of this generator is very low. That’s great for producing relative high voltage at low RPM (with only 600 RPM it generates over 7V). However the benefit of magnetic PLA is not dramatical. 15% is not nothing - especially if I’m interpreting as 15% saved manual winding effort.

Other test-setup have demonstrated that magnetic PLA can increase forces up to 40%. The design has a relevant influence on the actual performance.
If the design isn’t completely bad, the win of magnetic PLA is certainly larger than 10%, but it’s not higher than 50%. It’s unrealistic, if one would believe, magnetic PLA could increase the performance by a factor of 2. Electromagnetism and permeability isn’t trivial. I guess the ratio changes, if there is a heavy load connected to the generator, or if it was used as a motor.

0 Attachments
Average (1 Vote)
Please sign in to comment.
This is some interesting information. Something that was not mentioned is whether the core was printed at 100% infill or not and what the layer height was. If default settings were used and the core was printed at only 0.20 mm per layer with ~10% infill, I would expect to see some improvement with higher infill and twice the layers. Since not all printers are created equal, I would be interested to see similar tests on other printers.
Posted on 2/23/17 8:05 PM.
Hi Joseph, we are printing our cores at 100% infill and happen to be using .10mm layers - ours are done here at HQ using a MakerBot 2x. I believe the wiki article on Electromagnetic Tests posted here may provide some insight to your question:

While Christoph does not go into detail about the impact of density, he does provide a comparison of electromagnetic performance with and without the ferrous material, and also some theory on why the distribution of the iron in the plastic seems to circumvent the need for traditional lamella layers of ferrous and non-ferrous materials that are common in manufactured motors. The actual printer matters more only in terms of material compatibility, based on our experience (in other words: if you can get a reasonably clean print, your good). Instead of playing with density of the core, you might consider modifying it with a dual-material version that layers the ferrous and non-ferrous material and do a comparative analysis to see if that helps or hurts the output performance. Please be sure to share if you lean anything new. We would love to hear of your findings!
Posted on 4/7/17 12:22 PM in reply to Joseph S.
Please see also the comments to this project (scroll down), which are related:
Posted on 9/8/17 12:19 PM in reply to Joseph S.
Hi there! Why you didn't trace BH curve? i'm very excited about this material, i wish to know how this could affect the saturation induction of iron and power losses.
Posted on 12/14/17 6:07 AM.

Pictures and video don't convert like first-hand experience does.



Research shows that using augmented (AR), and virtual reality (VR), is more compelling and more likely to persuade your audience to buy, learn, and understand what you have to share. Use makeSEA to deliver content that connects with your audience like no other medium can.

Compel your audience with

Content Management and Cross-Platform Collaboration 
for Augmented and Virtual Reality


The fastest way to organize and share your content as if you are together with your audience in real life and keep it fresh using next-generation virtual and augmented reality technology.


Get Personal Demo Get Webinar


It's time to change the way you communicate, collaborate and compel your audience.


Time to change the way you capture and curate evolving ideas.


Use makeSEA content management platform + Catapult, our cross-platform client app for mixed reality and spatial collaboration to share your vision and inspire your audience with content that you are already producing.



10X-100X Time Savings • Recyclable Content & Scenes


Use makeSEA to reduce your AR and VR production time by an order of magnitude, or two.


Blend content from multiple sources tell a better story:  3D models, real-world scans, video, and you!

Keep things fresh and relevant and improve experiences over time as your content and XR technology mature.

Enabling augmented reality, mixed reality and spatial computing for everyday use.SM



Catapult your vision, in real-time together, for FREE.

It's as easy as a social media post:


  1. Create an account, start a project and upload your content from most any content source1.

  2. Launch Catapult, makeSEA's mixed reality client app on your VR or AR compatible device2.

  3. Share and collaborate using your own spatial content, with others together in real-time, in the same physical space and remotely.


Click Here to Get Detailed Instructions, Download and Install


Try makeSEA now! Simply register here and start publishing.


makeSEA is also available as a privately branded (white-label), or custom integrated solution for enterprise. Please Contact Us for more information.


Get Personal Demo Get Webinar



for Architecture
& Design
Magic Leap &
AR/Mixed Reality
Content Publishing
for Education
& Making


for Construction
for Trade Shows
& Exhibits
for Retail
& Branding

1:Catapult supports assets saved in GLB (preferred), FBX, OBJ, STL or MP4 (standard 720p, 1080p, or 3K 360˚ spherical surround format), or a makeScene package for live over-the-air collaboration with shared spatial content.  See the how-to guide for hints and instructions on how to easily export or convert content from most 3D authoring tools and platforms. 2:makeSEA supports Oculus Quest 2, Magic Leap 1, and Microsoft Hololens 2, makeSEA for Enterprise supports additional client devices; contact us for more information.

Trade Show Alternative

Is your tradeshow game plan caput because of COVID? Ours is! It's OK: use makeSEA and MagicLeap for Trade Shows and Exhibits to put your full-scale booth — that you host live and your...

Free makeSEA Account & Catapult App

makeSEA user accounts and Catapult for spatial computing have always been free. Covid-19 is changing the way we work, collaborate, interact and learn forever. It is accelerating the shift to...

Where Do We Go from Here?

I think we all have to accept that part of today's normal will become the "new" normal. At any time, another pandemic or other crisis can and probably will affect the way we teach, learn,...

Doing our part to help with local PPE

Doing our part to help with local PPE needs using hashtag # makeSEA hashtag # Catapult and hashtag # MagicLeap for rapid iteration and visualization on 3D printed...

Additive Manufacturing, AR and COVID-19

The global manufacturing industry is reeling from the effects of the COVID-19 outbreak. The mega-factories we rely on are experiencing shortages of personnel and raw materials for production....

Adapting to the New Normal

We are entering a new era. Whether you are a business, in the education field or just looking for ways to communicate safely, we are being forced to accept that we all need to find ways to...

Feeling Like a Fish Out of Water

During this time of uncertainty, we're all feeling a little like a fish out of water. Looking for new ways to conduct business, educate and train, share information and collaborate with...

Look to the Future with Spatial Computing

Now more than ever we need to think about keeping organizations running smoothly in a crisis. We are all being challenged and forced to look at the future. Businesses, educational...

Use Catapult for Forensic Visualization

What can you do with makeSEA and Catapult for Magic Leap? How about forensic visualization. Imagine being able to securely convert and deliver forensic scans data to full-scale immersive...

makeSEA is More

makeSEA is busy printing masks to help with the Coronavirus crisis. makeSEA's core value starting out was to support independent 3D designers, maker spaces and education with a platform that...

Change How You Communicate and Collaborate

It's time to change the way you think about collaborating, communicating, teaching, and design. Time to change the way you capture and curate evolving ideas. Use + ...

makeSEA Catapult App launched on Magic Leap World

It's time to change the way you think about communicating, teaching, and design. Time to change the way you capture and curate evolving ideas. Use makeSEA + Catapult and Magic Leap...

makeSEA at Construct 3D Conference

Look for us at the Construct 3D Conference between February 13-16 at Rice University in Houston, Texas. We’ll be joining an awesome list of sponsors and exhibitors and hope to see many of you...

Positive ROI with the Use of Mixed Reality

Mixed Reality (MR) is an umbrella term given to computer-generated environments that either merge the physical and virtual worlds (AR) or create an entirely immersive experience (VR) for the...

How Technology is Impacting Education...In a Good Way

  Today’s students have been raised on digital devices—digital engagement is a part of their DNA. It seems like a “no-brainer “ that instructors, especially at the high school and...

Easy Augmented Reality

makesea for Augmented Reality (AR) is a SaaS that supports a number of verticals and at the core is a content management platform that can be dressed for any experience from consumer branding...

AR and 3D Printing Should be Part of Advanced Curriculums

makeSEA for Education provides a safe, secure environment for students to collaborate and iterate on 3D designs and projects. Our SaaS platform also offers a way to get started with Augmented...

Using AR for EDU

      It’s no secret that keeping the attention of today’s students is harder than ever. From grade school to college level, these students have been raised with...

Some AR Stats to Think About

Download the infographic . If you think Augmented Reality/Mixed Reality is still just something to think about, think again! This technology is being used in everyday businesses...

A picture is worth a thousand words

Sometimes a picture IS worth a thousand words. makeSEA can get your firm AR ready. Have you considered how Augmented reality (AR) could help your architecture or construction firm? ...